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The increasing number of pilgrims, Mecca receives, has necessitated expansion of the Holy Mosque (Al Masjid Al Haram), as well as development projects located in the holy sites and several high-rise tower projects to accommodate the greater influx.

Since its first project in 1984, Kasktas Arabia Ltd. has mostly undertaken projects in the vicinity of the Holy Mosque. Some of its major projects are;

  • Plot 1 Chiller Plant
  • Plot 2 Al Massa’a Extension
  • Plot 3 Tower A,B,C,D,F & K
  • Plot 4 Jabal Al Kaba
  • Plot 5 Utility Culvert & Underpass
  • Plot 6 Kudai & Birkah Tunnels
  • Plot 7 Al Safwa Tower
  • Plot 8 Jabal Khandamah
  • Plot 9 Stabilization of Old Drainage Tunnels
  • Plot 10 Souk Al Saghir
  • Plot 11 Wadi Towers
  • Jabal Omar Development Project
  • Abraj Kudai Project
  • First Ring Road Project
  • Al Mashaaer Al Mugaddesah Metro Project
  • King Abdullah Haram 3rd Saudi Extension Project

Chiller Plant

From 2005 to 2007, at the construction of the Chiller Plant, the third phase of the Development of King Abdul Aziz Endowment for the Mecca Holy Haram Project, a total of 68,300 m of permanent rock anchors with a working load of 900 kN, 670 m of rock bolts and 12,250 m² of shotcrete and geotechnical engineering design were executed. Measuring 70 m it is the deepest permanent rock cut in Mecca and is supported by 34 rows of permanent rock anchors.

Tower F & K

An anchored and rock bolted mini pile wall was designed and installed for the 18 m deep foundation pit of Towers F & K between 2004 and 2005. The geotechnical applications executed include 24,750 m of mini piles, 12,300 m of permanent rock anchors with a working load of 900 kN, 2,900 m of rock bolts and 3,850 m² of shotcrete. In addition, the installation of 1,200 mm diameter bored piles, socketed into sound granite rock with a working load of 13,000 kN was completed.

Al Massa’a Extension

The Al Massa’a Extension Project is located inside the Holy Mosque, where pilgrims walk back and forth between the Safa and the Marwa hills seven times as part of their pilgrimage rites. Installation of a berliner wall system, water wells and piezometers; as well as driving of sheetpiles in a very sensitive area necessitated special measures in order to prevent contamination of the Zamzam water.

Jabal Omar Development Project

The Jabal Omar project is located on the western part of the Holy Mosque. The project; which covers an area of 245,000 m² and consists of 35 to 50-storey apartment and hotel buildings; is planned to be built on Mount Omar, which is one of the five mountains surrounding the Holy Haram. The maximum excavation depth is 64 m. A total of 60,500 m permanent anchors, 9,986 m rock bolts and 2,745 m micro piles were installed for the stabilization of rock cuts within the scope of the project.

Jabal Al Kaba

This project is located a few hundred meters southwest of the Holy Mosque. Between 2003 and 2004 10,250 m of permanent rock anchors and 1,800 m of rock bolts were installed to support a rock cut excavation to a depth of 60 m beneath a water reservoir with a capacity of 40,000 kN.

Abraj Kudai Project

Located in the center of the city of Mecca, approximately 2 km south of the Kaaba, the project covers an area of approximately 60,000 m2. The 3 sides of the project area are adjacent to the main roads. 12 towers and podiums planned for multi purpose use will be produced in the project. In the scope of the project, temporary shoring works on side of main road; rock stabilization works in the other deep excavation areas and piling works under Tower 1A have been undertaken by Kasktaş. In the content of the project, secant piles, temporary anchors, permanent anchors, rock bolts and bored piles installation were completed. Rock stabilization with a maximum height of 35 m was executed by rock bolts and permanent anchors. On the road sides the shoring depth was approximately 16 m and are designed with secant piles with 7 rows of ground anchors. Shoring piles and foundation bored piles under the foundations of towers were socked into high strength granite-granodiorite type rock formations.

First Ring Road Project

The First Ring Road project in Mecca consists of tunnels around the Kaaba and the road links between them. Rock bolts, rock anchors and shotcreting works were completed at Kudai and  Queshesya stations.

Al Mashaaer Al Mugaddesah Metro Project

Al Mashaaer Al Mugaddesah Metro project includes the Metro construction for transportation of pilgrims in Mecca. Within the scope of the project, the stabilization works for the excavations to be carried out for the planned subway construction on the Mina-Muzdalifah-Arafat side were completed. Rock bolts and permanent anchors were installed.

King Abdullah Haram 3rd Saudi Extension Project

Tunnels are being planned as part of reconstruction works around Kaaba in Mecca and in order to support the portal excavations of these tunnel constructions, secant piling works under the project was undertaken. The project consists of 3 separate phases. The production at the Chiller Utility Complex (Phase 1) started in December 2010 and finished in February 2011. Second phase started in May 2011 and finished in March 2012. Whereas the third phase started in March 2012 and finished in August 2012. In all three phases of the project, secant piles with 80 cm diameter were installed. Piling works were succeffullly carried out within rock formation composed of granite-granodiorite having very high bearing capacity (160-330 MPa).

Project Description

Mecca Holy Haram Development Project

  • Engineering

Project Features

Alfaf Co.
Key Quantities
Anchor Works 92,500 m
Rock bolt 102,800 m
Permanent Anchor 176,200 m
Shotcrete 27,500 m2
Rock Anchor 17,000 m
Soil Nail 20,000 m
Secant Pile 10,800 m
Project Duration
Start Date 01.05.2004
Finish Date 01.03.2016
Duration 204 Months


Mecca, Saudi Arabia




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