Bored cast-in-situ piles are underground structural elements executed mostly as a group or as individual beneath structures in order to generate deep foundations that will transmit the applied superstructure loads to the deeper stratum in required bearing capacity. Methodology of boring depends on prevailing soil conditions, diameter and length of the proposed pile. Diameter of bored piles range between 60 cm and 250 cm and pile length up to 100 m are applied. Depending on the pile’s diameter, length and soil condition, suitable pile drilling tools will be used.


Driven piles are sub-divided into two groups as cast in place and precast piles. Cast in place driven piles are executed by using closed end casing. Precast driven piles are manufactured in special production yards and then driven into soil either in the form of reinforced concrete or steel. As they are driven into soil, they push the soil sideways by displacing the soil they are sitting on.


Mini piles are used either as a deep foundation system or as a soldier pile of a shoring system in order to generate a resisting force against overturning of superstructures and minimizing the horizontal displacement.


Barrette piles are underground structural elements executed with a diaphragm wall machine in different geometric shapes derived from rectangular form. The diaphragm wall machines; such as free-fall grab, hydraulic grab or a hydro freeze (cutter) are to be used depending on the type of soil and construction methodology.


Special foundation approaches are implemented for the construction of box type foundation system consisting of diaphragm walls of critical structures; that are located especially within the seismically high regions. In this case different approaches are implemented for the construction and design of the continuous horizontal reinforcement special diaphragm walls.